The oud is undoubtedly the most important instrument in the classical repertoire.
The Maghreb knows two types: the Andalusian oud (oud arbi / kuitra / ramal ...) and the oud sharqi or machriq (the oriental oud).
the different proportions of the oud:
According to the measurements carried out, the existing ratios between the different proportions of the oud are combined in such a way that the note emitted at the intersection of the body and the some should be for the oud-arbi and one the most interval of kuitra Sixte Major (report 5/3). While for the oud sharqi this ratio is 3/2 fifth.
the different accesses used in the following Arab countries:
The oud sharqi has ten pegs, or eleven or twelve, for the one with six strings.
the 6th complementary string of the oud sharqi can be placed in the high or low.
6-qarar dukah (re), 5 -qarar busalik (mi2) or yakah (sol2), 4- ushayran (a2), 3-dukah (d3), 2-nawa (sol3) and 1-kirdan (do4),
0-jawab jaharka: (fa4)
the two Chords for 11 pegs or 12 pegs on an oud
In the Maghreb the terms for the strings of the Andalusian oud are:
dhil / raghul, hsin, maya, ramal. as for the Maghrebian oud, it uses an embraced chord, the best known of which are as follows: The chord is embraced, that is to say that the succession of strings does not follow the ascending succession of notes: the intervals of the chords successively include an ascending sixth, (IV - III), a fifth below, and finally an ascending fourth: (II - I) starting a tone higher.
Moroccan musicians use three other chords:
increased by a tone (sayid noqta): la, fa déze, si, mi.
Increased by 3 degrees (muthallith): do, la, d, sol
- and increased by a tone compared to the muthallith: d, si, mi, la
The classic sharqi ouds and Andalusian ouds have a fixed and glued bridge. Only the “Iraqi” model is an exception here:
it has a floating easel. Its name comes from its inventor, the Iraqi oud maker Mohamed Fadel.
The oud sharqi (oriental lute) has mostly one large Rosette and two small ones of circular or ovoid shape. The oud arbi has a large o and two circular gills of medium size.
The kuitra rosette is specific and almost always represents a flowery vase which represents the tree of life.
The Diapasons define the intervals and micro-intervals. The sound box and the entire length of the instrument influence the sound color. The smaller the Diapason, the fewer micro-intervals (lighter sound color), the larger the Diapason, the more micro-intervals (darker sound color).
The respective resonance box sizes differ only by a few centimeters. However, when choosing your instrument, you have to take into account your own size and the length of your arms. Common tuning fork for sharqi ouds:
- 58.5 cm. / usual in Turkey and for the Iraqi oud.
- 60 cm. / usual e.g. in Syria and Lebanon.
- 61.5 cm. / usual in Egypt. - 61.5 cm. / common in Egypt.
Arab-Andalusian music (الطرب الأندلسي), also called al-ala or al-andaloussi in Morocco, al moussiqa al andaloussia, gharnati, san'â, chaàbi, or malouf in Algeria, malouf in Tunisia and Libya is a musical genre layman, classical or scholar, from the Maghreb,
distinct from classical Arabic music performed in the Middle East
(or Machrek) and Egypt.
Abu El Hassan Ali Ben Nafiq, also known as Ziriab,
created in the 8th century the bases of the noubat, composed of poetic forms such as muwashshah or zadjal (which were one of the sources of the Cantigas de Santa Maria of King Alfonso X of Castile, flamenco and troubadours). This music will also have an influence on contemporary Western music, especially on the works of
Camille Saint-Saëns following his contacts with Algerian musicians,
such Mohamed Sfindja.
The Arab-Andalusian music developed in Spain has spread by forming three major schools which will claim the cultural centers of the Maghreb:
Grenada in Tlemcen and Oran, Nedroma in Algeria - Rabat and Salé, Oujda, Tangier, Tetouan, Safi in Morocco
Cordoba and Valence in Algiers, Béjaïa, Cherchell, Blida and Koléa in Algeria - Fès and Meknes in Morocco
Seville Constantine and Annaba in Algeria - Tripoli in Libya - Kairouan and Testour in Tunisia, La nouba differs from the wasla and the Arab qasida both by its fashions and its forms.
There are 16 noubat (including 4 unfinished): Al-dhîl - Mjenba - Al-hussayn -
Raml Al-mâya - Ramal - Ghrîb - Zîdân - Rasd - Mazmûm - Sîkâ - Rasd Al-Dhîl - Mâya (Ghribet Hassine - Araq - Djarka - Mûal).
The poetic forms that still exist are: Muwashshah - Zadjal - Msaddar- Shugl (popular sung poem) - Barwal (practiced in Constantine) - Melhoun- El Wahrani (Oran variant of Melhoun)
The noubat are made up of eight parts: two Msaddar - two Mûrakaz - two Barwal - Khafîf - Khatm. They are composed of the same rhythm, the name of which differs according to the speed of the musical movement.
The Moroccan nouba is a series of songs declined in 26 different diatonic modes (tab ’) (not using micro-intervals, except in recent mawwâl), including 4 main ones (Mâya - Al-dhîl - Mazmûm - Zîdân). The 11 noubat are long: Raml al-mâya - Isbahân - Al-mâya - Rasd al-dhîl - Al-istihlâl - Rasd - Gharîbat al-husayn - Al-hijâz al-kabîr - Al-hijâz al-mashriqî - 'Irâq' ajam - 'Ushshâq. They are each composed of five different parts or rhythms (mizan): Basît (including the openings: mshâliya and bughya) - Qâ’im wa-nisf - Btâyhî - Dârij - Quddâm. The poetic forms are as follows: Muwashshah - Zajal - Shugl -Barwal.
Compiled in the 18th century by Rachid Bey, it was consolidated in the 20th century by Rachidia. The modes are based on certain Ottoman micro-intervals. The 13 noubat: Dhîl - ‘Irâq - Sîkâ - Hsîn - Rast - Raml al-mâya - Nawâ - Asba‘ayn - Rast al-dhîl - Ramal - Isbahân - Mazmûm - Mâya. They are composed of 9 movements (qut'a, jiz) based on 9 rhythms (iqa): Ishtiftâh or Bashraf samâ’î or Tshambar - Msaddar - Abyât - Btâyhî - Barwal - Darj - Tûshiyâ - Khafîf - Khatm. Poetic forms: Nashîd - Istihlâl - ‘Amal - Muharrak - Muwashshah - Zajal - Barwal - Shugl.
The instruments used in a typical Arab-Andalusian music ensemble (takht) are:
the riqq or the tar: the Arab tambourine which is the master instrument of the ensemble because it is he who gives the basic rhythm
the naqarat: small timpani struck with chopsticks
the darbouka: chalice, olive wood or pottery drum, covered with goatskin or fish skin.
the oud arbi and the kouitra: the ancestor of the lute
the rebec or the rabâb: the Arabic fiddle sometimes replaced by the violin today
le nay: reed flute with free mouth, six or seven holes
the qanûn or kanoun: zither with many strings, played with tabs on the fingers.